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Poskytnutie pomoci diplomatickým misiám akreditovaným v Slovenskej republike v prípade vzniku mimoriadnej udalosti

Poskytnutie pomoci diplomatickým misiám akreditovaným v Slovenskej republike v prípade vzniku mimoriadnej udalosti

Jarmila Štefanková | 1. 6. 2012 0:00:00
Zařazení: Bezpečnost|Číslo 1/2012|Vědecká stať

ŠTEFANKOVÁ Jarmila, Ing.

Slovak Technical University Bratislava
Faculty of Materials science and technology in Trnava

  jarmila.stefankova@stuba.sk

TUREKOVÁ Ivana, Doc, Ing., PhD.

Slovak Technical University Bratislava
Faculty of Materials science and technology inTrnava

ivana.turekova@stuba.sk

Abstract:

The evacuation plan has to ensure a smooth evacuation of employees in case of emergency and after the emergency incident. Transfer of staff from the threatened building. Evacuation plan identifies the persons responsible for managing the evacuation, they are required to organize the evacuation in order to avoid panic, unnecessary damage to health, loss of life of persons and property.

Key words: evacuation, emergency incident, crisis situation

Introduction

The crisis management is an integral part of management. The objectives of crisis management is to prevent crisis situations, to be prepared to manage crisis situations and to propose further measures to improve crisis management. Recent crises in the world are proof that under the impact of political unrest abroad and earthquake in Japan, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) assisted in the evacuation of Slovak citizens and employees of diplomatic missions (embassies SR) in the risk country. In the case of a crisis in Egypt, given the chaotic situation and inability to leave the country by commercial airlines, Slovakia sent to Egypt a special  flight for Slovak citizens. The assistance and cooperation was provided also during the evacuation of Slovak citizens from Japan, which suffered a strong earthquake. The subsequent tsunami damaged a nuclear power plant what led to the leakage of radioactive substances.

Overview of evacuation of Slovak citizens since January 2011

Country

Incident

Evacuation

Egypt

Political unrest

Evacuation of Slovak citizens by special flight

Libya

Political unrest

Evacuation of Slovak citizens by commercial flights. Evacuation of Slovak staff  and closing the embassy.

Japan

Natural catastrophe

Evacuation of Slovak citizens  by regular flights. Cooperation with other EU countries.

Joining the EU, there is the responsibility of the Embassies of the Slovak Republic also to take care of citizens of EU Member States, if requested. EU member countries exchange information concerning the procedure for handling a crisis situation  in the threatened country. They provide information on air specials and help one another.

Evacuation is a complex of actions and measures, which include preparation  and  evacuation of  persons, animals in danger or material values ​​from the territory or object threatened by the occurrence of the crisis situation.

Emergency incident

Any emergency incident may occur unpredictably, or it can be assumed from the analysis of the territory by the diplomatic mission. The diplomatic mission is a group of people of a foreign State, which represents the interests of the sending State in the receiving State. The use of risk analysis has the impact on the security of offices, site selection, placement and planning evacuation routes. Emergency incident is serious, difficult to predict, time-and space-limited event caused by natural disaster, technical or technological accidents, operational failures, or deliberate action of man, which caused disturbance of the system or ongoing processes and activities, threatening the lives and health of persons, material and cultural goods or the environment.

The following factors have impact on the security situation in the country of operation of the representative office:

  1.  religious, human aspects, cultural habits, behaviour in that country, which arise from political unrest, instability in the country,
  2.  natural and climatic conditions,
  3.  laws, regulations and international treaties

Political unrest inEgypt

Source: internet, www.cas.sk/clanok/190319/situacia-v-egypte-sa...

Evacuation

Evacuation in Slovakia is planned in the period of peace in accordance with Decree 75 / 1995 Coll. and in accordance with the Act. 42/1994 Coll. relative the civil protection and belongs to  the fundamental measures of civil protection of the population.

The aim of evacuation plan is to ensure a smooth evacuation of persons in case of emergency and after the incident. Evacuation plan identifies those persons responsible for managing the evacuation, who are required to organize the evacuation in order to avoid panic, unnecessary damage to health and loss of life of persons and property.

If any crisis situation arises, Slovakia is proceeding according to Act no. 387/2002 Coll  concerning the state control in crisis situations outside the time of war and hostilities, as amended, which regulates the issue of crisis situations. It provides powers to public bodies to manage crisis situations outside time of war and  hostilities, it provides further  the rights and obligations of legal entities and individuals in the preparation for crisis situations outside time of war and hostilities. The solution of such situations belongs to the Government of the Slovak Republic, the Security Council of the Slovak Republic, ministries and other central government bodies, National Bank, Security Council of the Region, District Office  and the district municipality, which exert the civil emergency planning. There is an obligation for the entrepreneurs and legal persons to provide information and documents necessary to carry out civil emergency planning if required by the crisis management authorities. For non-compliance threatens sanction.

Evacuation planning is provided by the Act of the National Council Nr. 42/1994 Coll on civil protection, which requires from legal and natural persons to prepare and ensure the protection of their employees, to provide information on potential risks to the district offices and municipalities in which it operates, further how to liquidate the consequences. Information has to be regularly updated. In case of declaration of an emergency, to carry out the evacuation of its employees and persons taken into care. The law also provides for the preparation for civil protection, access to property, the duty of cooperation, personal actions etc. Beneficiaries of extraterritoriality according to international law and persons belonging to foreign diplomatic missions, to foreign consular offices, to the authorities of foreign states or international bodies, provided that these authorities or bodies operate in Slovakia with the consent of the competent authorities, are exempt from personal acts. Civil Protection is managed by the Ministry of the Interior and it cooperates with state authorities, regional governments, with municipalities, legal entities and natural persons and public institutions with humanitarian mission.

Evacuation

Source: internet m.ihned.cz/c4-10063640-50789850-700000_pdadet...

Diplomatic missions in the Slovak Republic

Providing assistance in emergencies, or to assist in the evacuation of diplomatic missions accredited in the Slovak Republic follows from the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (Foreign Affairs Ministry Decree 157/1964 Coll ) and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (Foreign Affairs Ministry Decree 32/1969 Coll), which determine the status of a diplomatic mission in a foreign country and the privileges and immunities of diplomatic personnel.

The main provisions relevant to the occurrence of extreme events are:

  •  the protection and integrity of members of the diplomatic corps,
  •  the protection and inviolability of the premises of diplomatic missions, the receiving State shall  enter the premises only with the permission of the Head of Mission.

Evacuation related to diplomatic missions is addressed in the Constitutional Law no. 227/2002 Coll on national security in time of war, hostilities, emergency and emergency conditions, as amended, which provides for restrictions on fundamental rights and freedoms and entities, requiring, for example. in time of war to limit the integrity and privacy of its residents forced to stay  in guarded shelters and other similar facilities of civil protection or by evacuation to a designated place, impose an obligation to work for the needs of the armed forces,  security of supply, maintenance of roads and railways, to restrict the exercise of ownership rights to real estate for the deployment of armed forces, combat equipment, medical equipment, utilities and emergency services, to restrict the exercise of ownership rights to movable property, to limit the inviolability of private accommodation for soldiers, to restrict freedom of movement and residence, the curfew in specified time or residence permits outside the village.

According to the Law on Civil Protection of the population, we consider diplomatic missions in Slovakia for persons taken into care. The Slovak legislation does not address the issue relating to foreign diplomatic missions, therefore the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations is applied. The protection of diplomatic missions in accordance with § 2. para 1 point. g) of Act no. 171/1993 Coll on the police force, as amended, belongs to the tasks of the Police Force.

Following the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the receiving State has a special obligation to take all appropriate measures to protect the rooms of the mission against any intrusion or damage and to prevent any disturbance of  missions, the injury to her dignity. The receiving State shall exempt diplomatic agents from all personal services, from all public services of any kind and from all military duties. Military obligation is associated with requisitions, with military contributions, billeting, etc.  In case of armed conflict, the receiving State is required to afford to the beneficiaries of the privileges and immunities, unless they are nationals of the receiving State, irrespective of their nationality, the benefits of allowing them to leave the country as soon as possible. If necessary, they must provide the transport facilities necessary for their transport and transport of their property. This applies only in case of an armed conflict.

Embassies of the Slovak Republic abroad

The Embassies of the Slovak Republic abroad  carry out the evacuation as directed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Slovak Republic provides for the evacuation of its staff in crisis situations on their own and at their own expense. Each embassy has prepared an emergency plan, which includes its own evacuation plan.  The emergency plans are based on needs, opportunities and staffing of the Embassy. Emergency plan should be in an intelligible form. For smooth solutions of problems in emergency situations, measures concerning material, technical, personnel, premises must be synchronized.

The basis for the development of emergency plans is:

  1.  analysis of the area
  2.  plan notification
  3.  backup workstation
  4.  graphical part - recorded evacuation routes

Emergency plans are designed to process emergency:

  1.  prevention - improving the security by  technical security devices, mechanical barrier  devices, equipment, safety documentation etc.
  2.  on line - an immediate solution to the incident, evacuation etc.
  3.  post accident - action, return to normal.

Cyklický diagram

International agreements

The Slovak Republic has signed international agreements on the treatment of emergency with the following countries: Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Poland, Russian Federation, Slovenia and Ukraine. In emergency cases, all EU countries assist each other. The agreements regulate the framework conditions for mutual assistance in emergencies in the territory of the other Contracting Party. The agreements also regulate the conditions of cooperation for prevention.

The agreements are:

  • international (closed between countries)
  •  interdepartemental (concluded between the authorities, for example between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs)
  •  concluded between the embassies in the country of operation.

77% embassies is without any agreement on the procedure in case of emergency,

Joining the EU, the duty of  Slovak embassies is extended to the obligation to take care also of citizens of EU Member States, if requested. The question of cooperation, under the heading of civil protection, is  to be found in Article 196 of the Treaty of the EU.

Conclusion

Prevention, carefully prepared evacuation plans and emergency plans are of great importance due to global events, monitoring and evaluating the security situations.

Diplomatic missions are usually in capitals, therefore by choosing the building of their headquarters, its location, security and protection of workers should be taken into account. It is important to inform staff and family members of diplomatic missions of the risks and how to proceed in case of emergency. Every diplomatic mission has to monitor the security situation in the country and shall inform the head office (Foreign Ministry), which decides on further action.

References

[1]

Terminologický slovník krízového riadenia, Bezpečnostná rada SR, Bratislava 2006

[2]

Vyhláška MZV SR č. 157/1964 Z.z Viedenský dohovor odiplomatických stykoch

[3]

Vyhláška MZV SR 32/1969 Z.z. Viedenský dohovor okonzulárnych stykoch

[4]

Ústavný zákon č. 227/2002 Z.z. obezpečnosti štátu včase vojny, vojnového stavu, výnimočného stavu anúdzového stavu vznení neskorších predpisov

[5]

Zákon č. 387/2002 Z.z. oriadení štátu vkrízových situáciách mimo času vojny avojnového stavu vznení neskorších predpisov

[6]

Zákon NR SR č. 42/1994 Z.z. ocivilnej ochrane obyvateľstva

[7]

Zákon č. 171/1993 Z.z. opolicajnom zbore vznení neskorších predpisov


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